During the 19th century Paris became the first great urban transformation project, which other European capitals later followed. The city's population had increased dramatically from 547,000 inhabitants at the beginning of the century to 1,538,000 in 1861. In order for the city to accommodate this increase and all France's new initiatives and energies carefully planned changes to the city were required. Paris was also forced to undergo major changes as a result of the political and social upheavals that took place within its boundaries throughout the 19th century, starting with the [Napoleonic#PERSONAS#42] coup d'état in 1799 and his subsequent self-proclamation as Emperor in 1804. All the political changes that took place after this historic event were mainly centred on Paris, where the bourgeoisie class, the working class and the government chiefs took it in turns to produce social conflicts. The instability of the period is illustrated by the Bourbon restoration (1814-1830), the 1848 Liberal Revolution (the Second Republic), Napoleon III's coup d'état, and the Germans entering Paris in 1871. At the end of the century the Third Republic seemed to stabilise the country, at least until the Second World War. Although the new urban impulse started around 1799, the city's period of greatest expansion was during Napoleon III's rule. The 1871 Paris Commune represented the most important European socio-proletariat revolt. It established a State project made up of free and autonomous communes that was eventually repressed by the conservative MacMahon and brought to a bloody end. In the mid-19th century, coinciding with the period of greatest political unrest, there was a change in artistic trends. Realism appeared as a reaction against Classicism and [Romanticism#ESTILOS#14] which were abandoned to focus on contemporary everyday life and current manners and customs. Jean-François Millet's work is a clear example of this kind of painting, as are the works of [Gustave Courbet#PINTOR#1650] and Honoré Daumier. The socialist and revolutionary sentiments of the time are apparent in many of these artists' paintings. The fin de siècle was crowned by the Universal Exhibition celebrated in Paris in 1889, where many artists and intellectuals gathered under Paris's brand new symbol, the Eiffel Tower, built specially for the occasion.